Soc. Following this notion, our study aimed to analyze the gender stereotype of school science subjects among female and male students and the impact of gender-science stereotypes on the career aspirations of young people. Closing the Gap. In educational tracks at the universities of applied science, with only 21.3% of women enrolled in STEM courses in academic year 2017–2018. Gender segregation in the vocational orientation of adolescents has been well documented for decades in most OECD countries (OECD, 2006, 2012). As a result, the gender wage gap is smaller in STEM jobs than in non-STEM jobs. Front. doi: 10.1037/a0018053, Ertl, B., Luttenberger, S., and Paechter, M. (2017). To summarize, we can state that female and male students indicate different patterns of gender-science stereotype. Personal. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2003.10.002, Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., and Vondracek, F. W. (2005). = +6) and low masculinity (high discrepancy between the profiles man and subject; min. Articles, Munich University of the Federal Armed Forces, Germany, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), United States. Regardless of the positive trend of more women choosing STEM subjects in college, the number of men choosing STEM subjects in college is rapidly increasing, too. Educ. Masculinity index of chemistry, math, and physics. The answers were coded by the gender-type of the field of study, based on the gender distribution of master's degrees obtained at Swiss universities in the year 2010 (FSO, 2012). Create more innovative, inclusive messaging. 20, 929–945. 55, 1–21. Soc. Prioritize diverse, inclusive and respectful environments, and strong, diverse leadership. Another study among first-year undergraduate students illustrated that implicit stereotypes of science completely accounted for a gap in male and female students' interests to pursue science. Here are some of the STEM gender gap statistics. By means of a standardized survey, data on students' perception of masculinity of science school subjects were collected using semantic differentials. Teach girls, teachers and parents that math skills are learned and change over time — promoting a growth mindset that empowers girls to embrace challenges. In 2019, WISE (Women Into Science and Engineering) celebrated hitting their 2020 target of reaching one million women working in core-STEM roles in the UK. Opinions about STEM content and classroom experiences as predictors of upper secondary school students' career aspirations to become researcher or teachers. Careers in science, technology, engineering and … 18th June 2020 Ford Commercial Vehicles’ Jonathan Gilpin says to encourage more women to work in STEM industries, companies need to employ more women – starting at the top. 6857. Accordingly, students' gender-related perception of different science subjects may differently impact their preferences of STEM subjects at school and vice versa. There is a gender gap in STEM professions. Psychol. Weinreich-Haste, H. (1981). Secondly, we expected gender differences among secondary school students in the association of chemistry, math, and physics with male gender. Students of Applied Universities (Basis Table). According to our findings, math is most strongly perceived as a masculine subject among female and male secondary school students, followed by physics and then chemistry, which has the weakest masculine connotations. The procedure modeled the choice of a STEM study major as the response category, with all other study fields as the reference category (non-STEM). New York, NY: NYU Press. An even despite the growing emphasis on gender equality, the gender disparity in STEM fields remains an issue in the modern labor market. All other fields of study were assigned to the category “non-STEM study choice.” The multivariate analyses were conducted with the dichotomous variable STEM field study choice (STEM field study choice = category 1; non-STEM study choice = reference category 0). Soc. Figure 2. (2006). Math. As bipolar constructs, gender stereotypes imply that what is masculine is not feminine and vice versa (Deaux and LaFrance, 1998; Worell, 2001; Renfrow and Howard, 2013). What is interesting is that even young women who opt for a STEM field rate the subjects—except physics—as masculine, though only slightly. A study by Archer et al. To assess the field of study choice, the secondary school students were asked about their subject preference for study at a university or at a university of applied sciences after the successful completion of secondary school. Closing the gender gap for women in STEM 18/11/2020 05:42 Tags: Client 2020 has become a milestone year for those campaigning for greater gender balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics employment. doi: 10.1002/sce.20159, Šorgo, A., Dojer, B., Golob, N., Repnik, R., Repolusk, S., Pesek, I., et al. In South Korea, as in other countries, the percentage of women in medicine (61.6%) is much higher than the percentage of women in engineering (15.4%) and other more math-based stem fields. The study reported that math, physics and chemistry had the strongest connotation as masculine academic subjects. Münster: Waxmann. Psychol. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Participants? doi: 10.1007/s11218-013-9232-8, Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., and Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Indulging our gendered selves? Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes. doi: 10.18574/nyu/9780814776452.001.0001, Scherz, Z., and Oren, M. (2006). Soc. doi: 10.4135/9781446249222.n49, Eccles, J. S. (1994). Am. How to change students' images of science and technology. Paris: OECD Publishing. Psychol. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1995.tb15804.x, Jones, B., Ruff, C., and Paretti, M. (2013). The good news is the current wage gap is on average 3%, an improvement in female engineer salaries over years past. Educ. Educ. Thus, further research on the perception of masculinity of chemistry, math, and physics among school students is needed to gain deeper insight into the impact of the gender stereotypes of science subjects on STEM-career aspirations. (2010). (2015), which analyzed how women's enrollment in science courses relates to the gender-science stereotype. (2018). Many girls lose confidence in math by third grade. On the Way to Gender Equality. Masculinity index of math and career aspirations. Moreover, it showed that science subjects were not only rated as masculine but also associated with a set of attributes commonly associated with masculinity such as being hard, complex, based on thinking rather than on feelings (Weinreich-Haste, 1981, p. Fitting into the stereotype: how gender-stereotyped perceptions of prototypic peers relate to liking for school subjects. (2013). According to the theoretical framework of Gottfredson (2002, 2005), occupational aspirations are incorporated in the individual self-image developed during socialization from early childhood through adolescence. J. Neuchâtel: FSO. Child. Masculinity index of chemistry and career aspirations. Deaux, K., and LaFrance, M. (1998). Evolution of Student Interest in science and Technology Studies. Experts say the way to beat the STEM gender gap is to encourage girls to explore their STEM options and interests at an early age. It also enables us to ask whether the STEM labor force exhibits gender wage gaps similar to those in the overall labor force. Another study among school children and university students by Weinreich-Haste (1981) assessed the gender image of different academic subjects using ratings on a six-point masculine-feminine scale. As the gender-related image of an academic discipline has a considerable effect on young people's career aspirations, a critical evaluation of the school subjects' image might be one way to break through the gender-image-driven limitations of the career horizons of female and male students. “The image of science,” in The Missing Half: Girls and Science Education, ed A. Kelly (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press), 216–229. Watt, and J. S. Eccles (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association), 115–143. 89, 1943–1955. As the present study does not include measures of the semantic ratings of the term woman we cannot compare the attribution of the feminine traits to chemistry, math and physics and its impact on the STEM study choice. J. Educ. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6772-0_17, Rosser, S. V. (2012). doi: 10.4324/9781315545899, Good, J. J., Woodzicka, J. Accordingly, the low proportion of women in STEM leads to the spread of a gender stereotypical image of math and science as a male domain and beliefs about male supremacy in technical and math-intensive fields. J. Pers. According to the theoretical framework of Gottfredson (2002, 2005), occupational aspirations are incorporated in the individual self-image developed during socialization from early childhood through adolescence. 90, 965–985. The ultimate goal of our study is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of gender equity in STEM. Current Situation and Developments. (2009). Mishawaka: Wiley and Sons. Educ. 114, 924–976. Available online at: https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/de/home/statistiken/kataloge-datenbanken/publikationen.assetdetail.349122.html (accessed October 10, 2018). Topics; STEM & Maker; Share. The persistence of gendered paths in career choices has recently been reflected in the current Global Gender Gap Report of the World Economic Forum (WEF), which states that on average men are underrepresented in the fields of education, health and welfare whereas women are underrepresented in the STEM fields (WEF, 2017, p. 31). Let’s look at a few real-world examples of ideas and programs that have proven successful for some classroom inspiration. Selbstkonzept und Berufswahl. Eur. A typical STEM worker earns two-thirds more than those employed in other fields, according to Pew Research Center. Table 3 shows the first model estimated for female students [Likelihood Ratio x(1,739)2 = 17.09, p ≤ 0.001, Pearson-Chi-Square 60.95 (88, 739) = 0.69]. doi: 10.1007/s35834-014-0111-y, Aeschlimann, B., Herzog, W., and Makarova, E. (2016). doi: 10.1007/s11218-017-9397-7, Bubany, S. T., and Hansen, J. I. C. (2011). However, the impact of the gender image of school science subjects on young people's career choice has not yet been analyzed. Educ. As the study of Thomas (2017) showed, a teacher's implicit science-is-male stereotype can contribute to gender differences in female students' motivational beliefs and probably also their gendered educational choices. (2018). STEM | Plugging the gender gap. In this process, the gender image of an occupation is especially crucial for career choice, because the “wrong” sex type of an occupation is more fundamental to self-concept than the prestige of an occupation or individual interests. Psychol. This coaching and mentoring – especially with role-modelling at the senior leadership level – can help in bridging the gender gap and inclusion chasm in STEM-related job roles. Final report]. Read AAUW’s research report for ways we can stop steering girls away from math and science, and make these field more welcoming for women. (2002, p. 44) reported that even women who had selected math-intensive majors had difficulties in associating math with themselves because they associated math with the male gender. Educ. Ich tat es ihm gleich – Vorbilder junger Frauen mit naturwissenschaftlich-technischer Berufswahl [“I did it like he did” – role models of young women with science and technical vocational choices]. Ensure every student is exposed to engineering and computer science, and. B. Overall, one sixth of all students aspired to having a STEM major (16.6%). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 18, 585–609. In addition, a meta-analysis of two major international data sets—“Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMMS) and the “Programme for International Student Assessment” (PISA)—has confirmed that gender equity in education is important not only for girls' math achievement but also for girls' self-confidence and valuing of mathematics (Else-Quest et al., 2010). (2010) suggested that although young children do not have profound knowledge about science subjects, they attribute masculine traits to science at an early age. The deep roots of the STEM gender gap. View all Overall, this study has shown that among the three school subjects analyzed in the study, math and physics were either negatively associated with female or positively associated with male gender. doi: 10.1126/science.126.3270.384, Miller, D. I., Eagly, A. H., and Linn, M. C. (2015). Studies that applied the DAST method reported that students from kindergarten to high school perceive a scientist as a male person. Considering that a mere 13% of the overall UK STEM workforce are female, it’s a crucial opportunity to encourage women – particularly young girls – to pursue STEM subjects to help close the STEM gender gap. Res. Although this operationalization of career choice has been applied by other studies (Nagy et al., 2006; Watt, 2006), it does not exclude the possibility that the anticipated choice of a study major does not necessarily lead to the actual choice of the same major after enrollment at university. Playbook on Best Practices for Gender Equity in Tech - YouTube. Available online at: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/30/36645825.pdf (accessed October 10, 2018). J. Swinburne partners with Avanade Australia to help close gender gap in STEM. Whereas, the female gender was strongly associated with traits such as soft, playful, soulful, dreamy, lenient, frail, and flexible, among the semantic traits associated with math and physics were attributes such as hard, serious, distant, sober, strict, robust, and rigid. Data on students' perception of the gender image of the school subjects chemistry, math, and physics were collected using semantic differentials (Makarova and Herzog, 2015). Finally, the gender-related image of school subjects and their implications are one of several determinants that affect the career aspirations of male and female secondary school students. Tweet. Soc. Pin. Psychol. Technol. Received: 28 December 2018; Accepted: 11 June 2019; Published: 10 July 2019. As per PWC study, worldwide only 32% of women graduate in STEM field. RealClearPolicy. Other related. Further, there is a general belief that STEM courses are for men and arts and humanities are women fields. Moreover, the masculinity index is approximately normally distributed (Kurtosis = 2.09, SE = 0.13; Skewness = 0.47, SD = 0.07) (George and Mallery, 2016). Stuttgart: Kröner. RealClearPolicy. Agentic traits are associated with success in science more than communal traits. To summarize, we can state that gender-science stereotyping has been shown to hinder the self-identification of young women with STEM academic subjects and fields and also to negatively affect their self-concept and their subject interests. The STEM Gender Gap The number of girls and women studying the sciences has steadily increased each year, but there is still a gender gap in higher education and the work force. Behav. doi: 10.1007/s11199-011-0036-z. The development of children's gender-science stereotypes: a meta-analysis of 5 decades of US draw-a-scientist studies. “Social psychology of gender and race,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Bull. Gottfredson, L. S. (2002). The semantic differential is one of the most popular techniques of explicit attitude assessment (Millon et al., 2003). Sex Roles 69, 58–71. Our analysis reveals the following findings for each subject: • Chemistry (Figure 2): With respect to career aspirations of young women, our results show that female students who opt for a non-STEM study major connotated chemistry significantly strongly as masculine compared to young women with a STEM career choice (p ≤ 0.01). H. Faulstich-Wieland (Weinheim: Juventa-Verlag, 39–57. Is this difference intrinsic to the work force—meaning, is the volume of qualified female STEM professionals smaller than the number of males available? 136, 103–127. In line with the findings of a study by Weinreich-Haste (1981), our results reveal that students not only perceive chemistry, math and physics as masculine, but also that there is a considerable difference in the strength of the association of each subject with the male gender. Promote welcoming work environments, including providing pay equity; flexibility; strong family and medical leave policies; inclusion and anti-bias training; mentorship, networking and ally-ship opportunities; and strong anti-discrimination and anti-harassment policies. Brent Orrell. There are several ways companies, organizations, and academic programs can help close the gender gap in STEM. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. A study in Swiss high schools. 16, 471–493. In 2010, fewer than 13 percent of working engineers were women. In line with these findings, a study by Nosek et al. Among young men, only math was rated as highly masculine among those students who had chosen a non-STEM study program. Key factors perpetuating gender STEM gaps: The myth of the math brain is one of the most self-destructive ideas in American education – research shows no innate cognitive biological differences between men and women in math. Pakistan has one of the highest gender gaps in the world and it is the third least performer in gender parity according to a report published by World Economic Forum in 2020. A study among primary school students illustrated that stereotypical beliefs that STEM school subjects are more suitable for boys than for girls were more strongly endorsed by boys than by girls. “Gendered high school course selection as a precursor of gendered careers: the mediating role of self-concept and intrinsic value,” in Gender and Occupational Outcomes, eds. Binary numbers key, Lesson 4: Cyber Security and Protecting Yourself, Teacher syllabus 30 Research focusing on self-to-prototype similarity suggests that the lack of similarity between the self and an academic subject is linked to a lower probability of liking this subject or choosing this academic subject as a major (Kessels, 2005; Kessels et al., 2006; Taconis and Kessels, 2009). It is, thus, important to distinguish between different STEM disciplines and subjects when addressing the gender gap in the STEM field (Rosser, 2012; Ertl et al., 2017). Keywords: gender, career aspirations, science, mathematics, secondary school students, Citation: Makarova E, Aeschlimann B and Herzog W (2019) The Gender Gap in STEM Fields: The Impact of the Gender Stereotype of Math and Science on Secondary Students' Career Aspirations. Finally, Else-Quest et al. 5. Increase awareness of higher education and career opportunities, pathway opportunities, role models and mentoring programs with women and women of color in STEM for girls. doi: 10.1007/s11218-017-9408-8, Hannover, B., and Kessels, U. doi: 10.1007/BF03173559, Kessels, U., Rau, M., and Hannover, B. doi: 10.1002/tea.21462, Steffens, M. C., Jelenec, P., and Noack, P. (2010). Breaking Into the Lab: Engineering Progress for Women in Science. The results show that the masculinity of math is also a predictor of young men's career aspirations. 76, 761–780. Pers. An explicit measurement of the gender stereotype of science subjects was chosen over an implicit stereotype test, because the study focuses on the salient gender stereotypes of those subjects (Millon et al., 2003, p. 356). The role of motivation in gendered educational and occupational trajectories related to maths. The professional STEM fields, math, and MacRae, M. ( )... Www.Oecd.Org/Dataoecd/16/30/36645825.Pdf ( accessed October 10, 2018 ) 355 ) = 15.83, p ≤ 0.001 assessment ( Millon al.! Scientist as a male domain, demonstrating the American cultural stereotype choices because they perceive occupations. 10.3102/0002831216682223, watt, H. L. ( 1998 ) a student 's self-image correlates choosing! Networking and incorporate male ally programs has existed around the STEM area, the article introduced that how the similarity... 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